Monthly Archives: April 2014

Pole Stars- Friends of Ancient Mariners :A Story by Syed Mohd. SalehUddin

Pole Stars: Friends of Ancient Mariners

Syed Mohd. SalehUddin

(Writer is an Assistant Professor (retd) Rampura Ekramunnessa Degree College and Instructor (retd) of Bangladesh Army Education Corps (SWO) where he used to teach Map reading, Astro Navigation, Aircraft recognition etc subjects in various Bangladesh Army Training establishments.)

To ancient Mariners Pole stars were their great friends. Today also its importance is not less to those mariners whose latest navigational devices become unserviceable in the sea due to some reasons. For navigational purposes ancient mariners could use sun also. Today also it is helping all the mariners by the day. But when night came and mariners were in the deep sea in the past when latest navigational devices were not developed Pole stars were ever vigilant to help them to find their directions.

Pole stars are those stars which are used by the mariners to keep their ships in their proper courses on the sea routes of both the hemispheres. We know this world is having two poles i.e. North Pole and South Pole. So, ancient astronomers were of same opinion in their contemporary time of using two prominent stars in two poles. Now in the North Pole, Polaris and in the South Pole, Crux is such star. A Pole star is approximately aligned with earth’s axis of rotation; that is, a star whose apparent position is one of the celestial poles.

Ancients’ mariners used Polaris to find the position of their ships, to ply ship in their definite directions. It has different name in different countries. In ancient India it was named Druva Tara. In Bangladesh also it is Druva Tara. It is derived from ancient Indian mythology. In Greece its ancient name was set, Typhon. In the mythology of Hawaii it is known as Kiopa’a, in Japan it is known as Myokan Bosatsu etc. Not only to ancient mariners but also ancient travellers of the North Pole took the help of this star to travel by night. It is worth mentioning here that big merchants’ caravans used to walk by night when they followed desert path. Today also to the soldiers of countries of northern hemisphere take the help of Polaris when they are in night mission or night march.

The pole star, Polaris is directly above the North Pole of the earth and stays there all the time. But to specialist Polaris is also moving but it is in such distance that open eye can’t trace it. Due to precession after long time another star will be seen in the present place of Polaris. This is due to spinning of the axis of the earth. This precession needs about 26000 years for one turn. To find Polaris mariners would take the help of two constellations as our soldiers do now.

Between those two constellations one was named the Great Bear or the Big Dipper and another one is Cassiopeia. The first one looks like a pan with a handle. Its end two stars are called pointers that point towards the Polaris. This constellation is seen in one side of the Polaris. In the other side of the above constellation is the natural place of Cassiopeia. This constellation is looks like W. So these are also named W stars. In between these two constellations one can see Polaris. When mariners or any one finds Polaris they are exactly look at the True north. Then they can find out their own position and can plot their course by other celestial or any other prominent figures in the shore like Light house, Hill top etc which are also in the charts. That they do by intersection, resection etc methods.

To set navigational fix in the southern hemisphere ancient mariners took the help of certain South star. But due to spinning of the axis of the earth after certain length of time nearby star replaces South star as in the case of Polaris. This process is precession. But now there is no south star which is as useful as Polaris of the northern hemisphere. However, now Southern Cross constellation functions as an approximate southern pole constellation. Its other name is ‘Crux’ constellation. At the equator it is possible to see both the Polaris and the Southern Cross.

Other prominent stars in the southern pole i.e. close to the south celestial pole are Sigma Octanis and Achernar. Sigma Octanis is the naked eyes star. But that is visible only in the clear night. So unusable for navigational purposes. In around 2800 BC Achernar was only 8 degrees from the South Pole. So the Southern Cross constellation is more logical for the present day mariners to find celestial south as it appears at the Southern Hemisphere. It can be found in the Milky Way near the Coal sack Nebula. In extension to the south it points onto the south celestial pole.

The Southern Cross is a special constellation because it is part of a bigger constellation called Centaurus. From the northern hemisphere it cannot be seen now. But the Greek in their Classical antiquity could watch it. For precession now they can see it. In the Greek mythology Chiron was transformed into constellation Centaurus by Zeus. There are many legends and also names of this constellation. To a German clan its name is ‘Yarandoo’for what there was also a legend. The ancient religious belief of Egyptians was: Crux was the place where the sun Goddess Horus was crucified.

Whatever the case may be Pole stars like ancient mariners will be helping future navigators of the earth also. Due to precession at that time other star may take place of present North and South stars. Crux the Southern Cross now is visible from Latitude 25 degree north and completely invisible in latitude above 35 degree north. Because of its cross shaped asterism it is commonly known as Southern Cross. Southern celestial pole can be located from the crux and its two pointers a Centuri and B centuri.

Crux constellation is the smallest of the 88 modern constellations. Latinized word of cross is crux. Its stars are Gamma Crucis, Delta Crucis, Epsilon Crucis, Mu Crucis.

From the very ancient time North Star and South Star were the guides of the mariners. Now Marine, Air and Space navigators are using sophisticated devices for the navigation of their crafts. Now scientists are planning for navigation in the space at the speed light. Some also is thinking about time travel. Scientists opined that travel at the speed of light may be possible in distant future but beyond the speed of light travel is not possible from the earth. However some also opined that may also be possible from other phenomenon of the universe which are not known till date to our thinkers. Travel to the past is not possible by us. But it is interesting that past is travelling us now and again. Even incidents of Big Bang are continuously visible at the distance where light of that incident reaches. Thus our observation devices everyday tracing incidents what occurred even Billions of years ago of what light reaches us in due time.

We can guess till the Doomsday even with the discovery of most sophisticated navigational devices importance of Pole Stars will remain to our mariners and soldiers but we do not know for our flight in the space during inter planetary travel will these be useful or if aliens come from other universes how will our pole stars help them? They will certainly have their own navigational system.

(Ref: Various entries of Wikipedia and training materials.)

 

 

Wrecks in the Seabed & Flights of the Hakko-Makko from Heaven to Earth : A story by Syed Mohd. Saleh Uddin

Wrecks in the Seabed & Flights of the

Hakko-Makko from Heaven to Earth

Syed Mohd. Saleh Uddin

He lived in the southern most solar systems visible from the earth. Arabian astrologers named it Acher Nahar,’ The end of the river’. In Bengali it is Nadi Mukh. In the west its Latinized identity is Achernar. Arabs used it to find celestial north during their navigational course. But at present no south star is as useful to plot navigational celestial north. However now Southern Cross are being used in this purpose. It is like Polaris in the northern sky which has astro navigational value to the people of northern hemisphere as former one to the people of southern hemispheres.

The king of the star worlds ‘THE TAROKALOKER BADSHAH’ has imposed Hakko Makko to supervise the research works of the aliens in relation of their’ flying crafts and causes of their destructions’ in the living abodes from the Southern Cross to the Polaris i.e. Pole Star. Southern Cross is in the constellation named ‘Crux’. Hakko Makko is instructed to make his new course towards Scorpios. It is the constellation which is dips into the Milky Way’s streams of stars. Not only about secret of crafts disasters but also Hakko Makko’s interest to catch galactic treasure soon he set off his space travel after having necessary knowledge from the on line astronomy of the earth because he will have to go there first for daily there are various types of crashes.

Monitor in his craft informed him about two words: astronomy and astrology. To tell the history in the monitor a page came, where were written: there was time when astronomy and astrology meant same. Page of the present dictionary came where were written Astrology is ‘a study which assumes, and profess to interpret the influence of the heavenly bodies on human daily life’. In contrast astrology is: The science of the celestial bodies, their motions, positions, distances, magnitudes, and other related information. One after other information was coming in monitor’s screen. Somewhere he saw written ancient human astronomers believed that the sun, moon, and planets were the symbols of the Gods. Hence the planets are named from the Greek and Roman mythologies. Ancient Indians and Chinese philosophers named them on their own faiths. Later Muslim astrologers named them in Arabic styles as they did not believes on Gods and Goddesses but only one creator Allah who has no wife, son , daughter or any partner to help him.

Now Hakko Makko is in the way of Earth’s Milky Way. But he does not have any objection to work there. So, he followed short path. As a result his craft entered the Earth solar system crossing long distance in comparatively short span of time. From the space by his space communication devices he was getting live news from the Heaven’s transmission centre of the aliens. Screen was full of images. Round shape Earth seen full of crafts. In the streets there were full of moving bodies. At about the same time there were rush. Moving bodies stopped so traffic Jam. Somewhere moving crafts were very fast over the globe, and seen hundreds of accidents. Somewhere over the sea there were many crafts. Live news was that those were rescue ships searching Malaysian airliner what was lost in sea on March 2014. Not long distance from that another such rescue ships and small crafts were seen working. News was that a ferry boat of South Korea sank in the sea, casualties exceeded one hundred. It was April 22, 2014.

Hakko Makko reached the Scorpios constellation very easily. It looks like its name shake. Its fish hook shaped tail helped him to find his destination easily. He entered the space of the Earth. He came to know that to Earth’s space scientists, space is known as Heaven. He was bit confused because he heard eternal abodes of death of righteous believers will be in the Heaven. From various sources now he is clear that Christians, Muslims, Jews, Persians, Hindu, Chinese and the followers of other religions have faith on Heaven. Christians believe first man and woman Adam and Eve created and lived in Eden. It is a Heaven. Muslim Say it Jannat. To Persian it is Behest. To Indian it is Swarga loka etc. To Chinese it is Tien. To some believers it is beyond our known Universe somewhere in the dark where there is no star. In Islam also it is beyond the world of stars i.e. the first sky. However, to all sky scientists, bodies of the Universe are the heavenly bodies.

His universe communication devices started working. He pressed the history button. Pages of Earth’s Mahakal (time from the unknown date of creation of earth to doomsday) opened. Ancient birds like flying bodies were visible in the Earth sky. Gradually their shapes and size were changing. Those all were natural to Hakko Makko because almost similar natural flying objects are in his planet. By his utter astonishment he few round shaped object were going up. Some of them reached too high, burst and broken into pieces. Hakko Makko felt them to be artificial objects. Then cigar shaped such objects were seen flying. Explanation came in the monitor that those were non powered and powered balloon made crafts. In watery area of the Earth many small and big objects were seen plying. There was explanation that they are boat, ship etc in different names. From unknown past they are main source of conveyance in this planet.

In his monitor a page of 1903 of the world was opened. He saw two men were trying to fly an object. There was an explanation: in the mentioned year Wright brothers first flew heavier than air craft. Then he saw development s of such flying crafts. Big machines were flying. There were explanations Jumbo Jet, Airbus, Boeing, Hercules, Antonov Meria etc. These are used in the airliners. When such craft destroys there are big causalities. Hakko Makko is sent here to know about the disasters of ship and other crafts that now are lying in the seabed. In his monitor there were also many dog fights of aircrafts over war fields. Their throwing of bullets like fireball to each other and destruction etc also came. However he was not assigned research work on warring aircrafts. As the pages were turning over he saw big ships are sinking and big aircraft became fireball in the air and rushing towards marshy area in regular intervals. Explanations were also there: those marshy areas are known in the Earth as river, sea, ocean etc. These are water reservoirs of the Earth. To know about them Hakko Makkow pressed a button of a search machine which deals with the waters and objects on the Earth surfaces.

In the sky birds of various colours and sizes were flying. In the high above the earth surfaces there were big flying machines. Beyond the atmosphere around the earth many crafts are seen revolving. In an interval cigar shaped speedy crafts were seen leaving the earth. They crossed the air surfaces in a free speed, and thus going away from the globe. There were explanations for all the above devices. He needs to know all these. Under the water he saw big whale like devices. From the explanation they came to know that those are manmade submarines. He saw natural creatures also. They are known as Whale, Shark, Dolphin, Seal, Octopus, Suede, Sea horse, Sea lion and Polar bear etc. To know more he pressed the button named ‘Legends’.

Few legendary characters came. Khoaza Khezer, Jal Devota, Sea king etc. The story of the Mermaid was also in the screen. A story of National Geographical channel of the earth came in his monitor. Many creatures like legendary mermaid were fishing with spear like weapons. He heard the voice of the narrator: I have never seen such humanlike creatures before. He further added in my long past diver life I have seen in various oceans hundreds of local species. I have never seen anything with such manlike face which also has humanlike mouth, eyes, nose, forehead and even black hairs. They were moving in a folk, throwing spears at the fishes and swimming forward. He saw some of them also became the prey of sharks. The announcer said his party was successful to catch a wounded fish by that weapon. Suddenly he saw all the unknown creatures made their ways among the poisonous Sponges and disappeared. Then a man was seen in a naval ship plying along side of the ship of the researcher. A man was handling over to him an audio record. He heard voice of the announcer: its sound I heard before I have seen those creatures in the sea. Now our Navy will research about this supernatural sound. Hakko Makko thought that they are mermaid like creatures. They are certainly from other planets that came for certain duty here and for their food they were fishing.

Hakko Makko’s craft jumped in a deep ocean. First he tried to trace aliens there. His aliens tracing devices were active. Soon he got reply from the alliances. One of their stations informed him the story of the National Geographic Channel to be correct one. It may be possible by the inhabitants of the Caplar 186 F. It is the member planet of the solar system of a calm but small star. It is one of the star of the Milky Way what is the address of the earth also. One of the station commanders of the Aliens informed the story of the mermaid might be created by one of the female members of that planet who came long ago but failed to get their craft because she was busy with fishing. He heard about another mystery named Loch Ness Monster mystery. It is the tale of big Dinosaurs like neck fish that also can fly. Recently it is propagated from an image of a satellite its existence is proved. Hakko Makko does not want to think about it and other under water lives that are not his research matters.

Suddenly his craft stopped near a ship wreck. There he saw few souls. By telepathy they informed Hakko Makko that it was the middle ages Dutch Pirates ship. They were pirates. Now this wreck is their abode. His craft had free access everywhere. Hakko Makko saw wrecks of Portuguese, English, French, Spaniard, Arab etc ship wrecks. Those were crusader’s ships, pirate’s ship, merchant’s ship etc. In many ships Hakko Makko saw many souls. Someone from an Arab ship made contact with Hakko Makko. It was a Moorish Arab pirate’s ship. The soul said: we are Nafse Ammara (the unsatisfied souls). We are not free from this world. They live where their bodies are buried. We are buried with this destroyed ship. So, we are here. So far I know only Nafse Mutmainna (satisfied souls) get rid of this earth. They are in the way of our eternal abodes. As a matter of fact we the all pirates may be of any country, creeds or ideology and language in life we were always unsatisfied.

Someone from wreck of a crusader’s ship made contact with him. He said: we were made bound to fight against Muslims to protect our faith on Trinity i.e. the faith on Son God, Father God and Holy Ghost. Muslims came forward to protect their faith on Unity i.e. faith on there is no God but Allah that refuted Trinity. They said: do not say the Son of God but say Allah is one. Also say him (PBUH) a prophet. As they say Muhammad (PBUH) a prophet. So, we fought against each other that left hundreds of deaths in the name of Martyrs and Shaheeds.

Hakko Makko’s craft visited many wrecks of ships and aircrafts underwater. Within very short time he visited many wrecks of crashed ships. He stopped near the wrecks of the RMS Titanic. On April 10, 1912 it embarked on its maiden voyage, sailing from Southampton, England to New York city. It was one of the largest and most luxurious passenger liners at the time. It was considered by many to be unsinkable. But it has its tragic End in its first Voyage. On April 14 the ship struck an iceberg. The early next day it sank. Some 1500 people on board perished, though many were also rescued. As for the tragedy, the ship became perhaps the best known ship in the world. After the 1985 its discovery of wreckage increased interests. In creative persons creativity increased. Now it is an enduring legend. Hakko Makko completed writing his draft. Soon he will have to fly again towards the Polaris for his new assignments.

FAO urges countries to step up action against destructive banana disease:Dissmination of FAO News Article

The News Article entitled,”FAO urges countries to step up action against destructive banana disease” will be very helpful for the banana farmers and plant pathologists and extensionists of agricultural agencies for information and awareness creation.Hence is has been published in this website for further dissemination and awareness creation. .The News Article may be accessed at the following link:  http://www.fao.org/news/story/en/item/223409/icode/

 

FAO urges countries to step up action against destructive banana disease

Following its spread to Africa and the Middle East, Fusarium wilt TR4 increases the risks to livelihoods and banana markets

Photo: ©FAO/Fazil Dusunceli

Diseased banana plants.

14 April 2014, Rome – The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) is warning countries to step up monitoring, reporting and prevention of one of the world’s most destructive banana diseases, Fusarium wilt, which recently spread from Asia to Africa and the Middle East, and which has the potential to affect countries in Latin America.

The TR4 race of the disease, which is also known as Panama disease, is posing a serious threat to production and export of the popular fruit, with serious repercussions for the banana value chain and livelihoods, FAO said in an information brief.

Banana is the eighth most important food crop in the world and the fourth most important food crop among the world’s least-developed countries, according to FAOSTAT, the UN agency’s  data-gathering and analysis service.

“Any disease or constraint that affects bananas is striking at an important source of food, livelihoods, employment and government revenues in many tropical countries,” said Gianluca Gondolini, Secretary of the World Banana Forum. The Forum, whose Secretariat is based at FAO headquarters, promotes sustainable banana production and trade.

“The spread of Fusarium wilt banana disease could have a significant impact on growers, traders and families who depend on the banana industry,” Fazil Dusunceli, a plant pathologist at FAO, said. “Countries need to act now if we are to avoid the worst-case scenario, which is massive destruction of much of the world’s banana crop,” said Dusunceli.

Recommended action

At the country level, FAO specifically advises:

  • Awareness raising at all levels and adoption of appropriate risk assessment, surveillance and early warning systems;
  • Implementation of phytosanitary measures to prevent the spread of the disease through agricultural practices, irrigation and drainage systems, transportation, vehicles, containers, tools or visitors;
  • Preventive measures, including quarantines, the use of disease-free planting materials, prevention of movement of infected soil and planting materials into and out of farms, and disinfection of vehicles;
  • Capacity building in National Plant Protection Organizations (NPPO) in planning, extension and research, including the use of rapid and accurate diagnostic tools;
  • Training of technical officers, producers and farm workers in disease identification, prevention and management under field conditions, and appropriate instructions to visitors.

While other races of the disease have existed for many years, TR4 has caused significant losses in banana plantations in Southeast Asia over the last two decades, and has recently been reported in Mozambique and Jordan.

TR4 infects the Cavendish banana varieties, which dominate global trade, as well as other susceptible varieties used for local consumption and markets. Despite damage to the banana plant and to production, the fruit itself remains edible.

Soil-borne disease

Fusarium wilt is caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Foc). The disease is soil-borne and the fungus can remain viable for decades.  Once the disease is present in a field, it cannot be fully controlled by currently available practices and fungicides. The best way to fight the disease is to prevent its spread, which includes avoiding movement of diseased plant materials and infected soil particles.

“We need to raise awareness of this threat, coordinate efforts among countries and institutions for effective implementation of appropriate quarantine measures, and also work with banana producers, traders, plantation employees and smallholder farmers to help to minimize the spread of the disease,” Dusunceli said. He also highlighted the importance of research in better understanding the disease and developing alternative varieties that are disease resistant.

FAO’s information note stresses the importance of using disease-free seedlings and avoiding movement of infected soil and planting materials into, and out of, farms, through transportation, visitors or other means.

“A concerted effort is required from stakeholders including the industry, research institutions, governments and international organizations to prevent spread of the disease,” the note reads.

Raising awareness

FAO and its partners, including the World Banana Forum (WBF), the scientific community and the banana industry are among those making efforts to increase awareness of the inherent threat of TR4.

The issue will be on the agenda of a series of upcoming meetings in Kenya, South Africa, and Trinidad and Tobago, with the aim of addressing a range of issues related to TR4, including developing action plans for its prevention, monitoring and containment.

The banana crop is vulnerable to a number of diseases in various parts of the world, including the Black Sigatoka disease, Xanthomonas Wilt (BXW), Bunchy Top Disease (BBTD) and Fusarium Wilt, but Fusarium’s soil-borne nature makes it especially challenging.

 

Great & Fatal Air disasters and Tanisha:A Story by Syed Mohd. Saleh Uddin

Great & Fatal Air disasters and Tanisha

Syed Mohd. Saleh Uddin

Based on Aviation History

Tanisha always remembers Mathanda , a beautiful Indonesian girl. There were also many Malaysian girls in her school. Rest of the students are from the inhabitants of Singapore and Indian immigrants. While Tanisha was in Singapore all of them were her playmates there. They played together. Now Tanisha is at Daffodil International School in Uttara, Dhaka. She can’t forget them. Especially Mathanda was her bosom friend. Now and again Tanisha says Mathanda is my best friend.

On April 05, 2014 at about 0830 Tanisha’s father flew for Singapore again. Tanisha remembered her Singapore life. Then she was mere a child. The memory of Li Tho o and Yuan is still fresh in her mind. They were Chinese boys. Yuan is Ryan to Tanisha. They shared riding, game swinging horse. They each used to push the horse from the back in their turn. Ryan became superman and Tanisha fired the superman by water gun etc. Thus their school period was over. They were good friends though they could not talk with Tanisha and Tanisha could not talk with them. Chinese and Bengali were Greek to each other.

By the time Tanisha’s father’s aircraft took off. At home Tanisha was gloomy. She came to her Nana Bhai (maternal grandfather). In her hand there was a small card. At the end words From Mathanda’ mother was visible. In the body following lines were clearly written in English: “No matter how far we are. Hope our friendship will always stay in mind. Wish you all the best in future.” To Tanisha it is a token of love from Mathanda. So, she shows it to all her nearer and dearer and strangers at home.

Last evening on the occasion of her father departure to Singapore and to see Maria her Khalamoni (aunt) and her father ( Nana Bhai) came. They presented her a book named ‘Thakurmar Jhuli” (Stories from the Grandma). It was developed by Dakhina Ranjan Mitra Majumder a famous story writer in old Bengali dialect. Tanisha is an English medium student, so it is bit hard for her to understand. She requested her Nana Bhai to read from the book a story named Maya Pahar and make her understand. He started Maya Pahar is an Illusion hill where unbelievable incidents occurs. …….Tanisha did not like this story. Nana it is a hard story, “please tell me an interesting story.” Then listen, Nana Bhai said,” there is a place named Bermuda Triangle. Once a merchant liners reached there. It was in its regular course. The sea was calm. Nothing doubtful was there. But, suddenly the big ship disappeared from the sea. There were many searches by the latest various contemporary technologies. But there was no trace of the ship in the area. Later many other such illusions were occurred. Many ships were gone out of sight. At about same period, an aircraft was moving around the area but that also disappeared. Later also happened such. After many unsuccessful rescue searches the entire above are left to mystery. Story writers came forward to make stories.

In many stories, these were acts of the aliens. They live far away from our galaxy. They were very powerful. They fly to this earth in very short period. They used to come here with many big and small unidentified flying objects. Those liners and the aircrafts were hijacked by them. Their big galaxy crafts carried them there, where their scientists researched with what were in them. In doubt Tanisha looked at her Nana Bhai. She thought that these were mere stories.

Tanisha heard about Malaysia airline flight carrying 239 people including crews lost in the sea. It was March 08,2014.The flight MH-370 left Kuala lumpur International Airport at 00.41 and was expected to land in Beijing at 0630 local time (22:30 GMT). Despite local news reports, Vietnamese and Malaysian rescue crews have not located the plane’s signals, but Hanoi believes the crafts disappeared in Vietnamese airspace. She also came to know except crews out of 227 passengers 153 were Chinese, 38 were Malaysian, 7 were Indonesian, 7 were Australian, 5 were Indian, 4 were American, one was Russian among others. Tanisha remembered her Malaysian and Chinese friends. Till the day of her father flight rescue workers of various countries searched a long area. But no trace of even a piece of debris was there. Even from the black box or the flight data recorder they fail to trace any emit of signal. She was thinking, then where is the so big aircraft? Is it the act of aliens?

There were many other possibilities. In 1988 a United States Navy guided missile cruiser shot down the Iranian civil passenger aircraft “Iran Air Flight 655”. All the 290 passengers on board, including 66 children and 16 crews died. Such possibility does not exist now in Indian Ocean. USA is a good friend of Malaysia. Other countries around are friendly with Malaysia. Besides it is peace time. Why any Navy will shot at it? By the by if any Navy or terrorist group destroy it then where it wrecks will go? She was tired of thinking. She was thinking about his father’s landing in Chengi airport of Singapore. Her eyes were filling in drowsiness. She was observing some big black unknown objects are over the Indian Ocean. In her astonishment she saw they were moving very fast. She felt many such objects covered the sky over her. Few of them are big rest others are small. Suddenly she discovered inside a big cloud something like a big aircraft is also moving. Is it that lost Malaysian aircraft? All the unknown objects disappeared with the aircraft, as if blitz like disappearance of attacking aircrafts. Tanisha thought the aircraft is hijacked by the aliens and they are taking that to their own country which is in a distant planet of some other solar system. Tanisha frightened, what would be fate of the on board people of the earth there!

Tanisha’s drowsiness flew away. She heard someone saying her father landed in Singapore safe and sound. Thanks to almighty Allah. Now she is thinking about the passengers and crews of the ill fated missing aircraft. What she felt in her drowsiness, now she knows is the act of her subconscious mind. This is the secret of all of the dreams. Fact is that it is destroyed somewhere. But how was that happened? She heard many guessing from the people what they learned from the Daily News Paper. In the western News about two Iranians or hijackers from other passengers were probable suspects. Others discussed about captain and other crews. However, till date it is undiscovered fact. On 15 April also rescue teams sent an unmanned submarine under hundred of lees deep to search the craft. Next day also it went down.

About complex accidents like air crash Tanisha does not want to think. Its result sometime is very pathetic. Ferocious Fire covers the aircraft very quickly. Soon it burns everything just like a powerful pyre. Living beings became slugs of ashes. It is a matter of grief to her. Tanisha expressed she does not like to die. But she also expressed no way to avoid death. She looks at the hair of her Nana Bhai and comments, your few hairs are still black. So, you may live more time. When your all the hairs will become grey, then only you may die. How little Tanisha will know death does not depends on grey hairs only! Big air crash may snatch hundreds of life at a time on board either they are child or old!

Soon she became busy to other thinking. Sweet memories of her Singapore school rushes in her brain. Once in Hari Raya Tanisha were very happy in a park where she went with her parents. Now she knows Malaysian called Eid, Hari Raya. She saw their big march pasts in the city streets in the Chinese New year where children, young and old were very happy. With big cloths made dragons, big kites etc they walk, dance and sing in the streets. From the window of their flat she saw all these. She wanted to run there. But how little Tanisha would go! Next morning she met with her Chinese friends in the school. Then also they were happy for their festival. In the other festival also she saw very lively Singapore. It was Christmas day. Her Indian friends used to come to the school during their Puja festival with happy mood. So her Singapore friends knock her mind now and again.

In the discovery channel there is a program about Air crash. There causalities and causes are discussed. Tanisha heard about crashes of Bangladeshi airliners. She heard about crashes during Pakistani period. Nana Bhai served in the Air Force. He used to tell her story of aircrafts. Tanisha knew in 1971 we fought against Pakistan for liberation. In our Air Force there was a plane named Dakota DC-3. After liberation it became an aircraft of Bangladesh Biman. But it destroyed in a crash on February 10, 1972. It’s all the 5 crew members died. He also told on July 01, 1957 a PIA Douglas DC-10 crashed in Charlakhi Island in the Bay of Bengal. It’s all 20 passengers and 4 crews were killed. It was the first aircraft crash in the land. Then on December 02, 1970 a Cargolux Canadair CL 44 crashed into a farmhouse near Dhaka Airport. Kaniz Fatema Rokshana a women pilot died when her F-27 crashed near Dhaka in August 05 in 1984. Another woman pilot was Fareea Lara. She died while she was in a training flight with Syed Rafiqul Islam. They were the students of Air Parabat Flying Academy. Their Cessna was crashed near Postgolla, Dhaka. On June 07, 2002 in a crash Pilot Mukhlesur Rahman died of the same Academy. Nana Bhai also talked about death of PAF and BAF pilots by fighter aircraft accidents. There also were deaths of pilots in dog fights between fighter aircrafts during 1965 and 1971 wars between India and Pakistan and others wars in Middle East, Afghanistan and in Indo China. He told about only in Bangladesh till 2013 there were 13 crashes due to which 58 persons died. Tanisha feels about all of them. She heard about not only those, there were hundreds of big air disasters. Thousands of people were died on those accidents.

Some times Tanisha feels about all such deaths. What happened after death? She knows after death people are taken to the grave yards. Some are burnt in the pyre. Is it the End? How that can be? Mother said on death souls departed from their body. They were taken to other abodes by angels who are far away from this earth. Tanisha thinks about them. Mother said good souls are taken to the heaven and bad to the hell. She wishes let all the deaths have abodes in heaven. But where are the heavens? She heard almost all religions speak about heaven. She liked to know about them from her Nana Bhai.

Nana Bhai said then listen. From the Holy Quran we come to know there are heavens. In a verse there is, “the parable of the garden which the righteous are promised! Beneath it Flow Rivers, perpetual is the fruits thereof and the shade therein. Such is the End of the Righteous, and End of the unbelievers is the fire.” (Sura al-Rad/ Quran 13:35)

Tanisha’s prayer is let everybody enter the heaven. Nana Bhai explained there are many religions in the earth. Almost all of them have some sort of faith on heavens. So, listen those: In the native Chinese Confusians’ tradition Heaven (Tien) is an important concept where the ancestors reside and from which emperors drew their mandate to rule their dynastic propaganda.

According to Vaishnava Hindu tradition the highest heaven is Vaikuntha, which exists above the six heavenly lokas and out side the Mahat-tattava. It’s where eternally liberated souls who have attains Mokha reside in eternal sublime beauty with Lakshmi and Narayana.

According to Jainism, “the Deva lokas (heavens) are at the symbolic ‘Chest’ where all souls enjoying the positive Karmic effects reside.” They have several layer of it varying degree of Kermit merits.

According to Tibetan Buddhism there are 5 layers of Heavens.

Ancient Egyptian believed, “Heaven was a place far above the earth in a dark ‘dark area’ of space where there is no stars, basically beyond the universe.

In Indian religions, Heaven is considered as Svarga loka, and soul is subjected to rebirth in different living forms according to its Karma. The cycle can be broken after a soul attains Mokha or Nirvana. According to Buddhists : a person is led countless previous lives, usually as an animal, but somehow in this life he is born as a human being and in the next life he will be reborn as an animal, depending on the kind of life he has lived. This process will continue the Nirvana. However the Great Buddha always remained silent about the existence and non existence soul what will enter the Svarga. Like them Hindus’ beliefs are: a soul reincarnates again and again on earth until it becomes perfect and reunites with its source. During this process the soul enters into many bodies, assumes many forms and passes through many births and death. In Hindu beliefs SVARGA exists. In India and Greece many similar doctrines developed in different names. The Reincarnation, Rebirth and Transmigration of souls are such doctrines. What mainly meant a passage from the one body to another!

Biblical beliefs of Christians in heaven as the “Throne of God” they also say, to which all the elect will be admitted. Their beliefs about the life here after from the verse of Bible, “I look forward to the resurrection of death, and the life of the world to come.”

Followers of Kabbalah Jewish mysticism believes in seven heavens according to Talmud.

All the above are very hard matters for Tanisha. She wants all the children to enter heaven. Mother told her ’Monker and Nokir (two angels)’ play with the children. They are also friendly with them in their graves when they die. She believes it and she told to her Nana Bhai. Nana Bhai knows now Tanisha will lose her patience if she is told the long history of air disasters. Nana Bhai came to know from the internet that first recorded air crash was in August 02, 1919. It was a Carponi Ca.48 which crashed at Verone, Italy. Its death toll was 14 or 15 or 17 as reports vary. The first recorded mid air collision of airliners was in 1922 when a de Havilland DH. 18A, G-EAWO collided with Farman F-60 Goliath in the air of France near Picardie and killed 7 people on board. Then in the Second World War and later there were hundreds of aircraft crashed. In the history it is also seen that in the 1919, 1138 persons died in 211 accidents, in 2000 from 189 crashes there were 1582 deaths, in 2001there were 200 accidents when 4140 were killed, in the year 2002 in 185 accidents deaths tolls were 1413, in the year 2003 there were 1230 deaths from 199 accidents, in the year 2004 from 172 crashes death tolls were 771,in 2005 there were 185 accidents when 1459 died, in 2006 there were 1294 deaths from 166 accidents, in 2007 accidents were 147 and death tolls were 971, in 2008 there were 156 accidents when 884 people were killed, in the year 2009 death tolls were 1103 from 122 accidents, in 2010 disasters were 130 when 1115 killed, in the 2011 there were 828 deaths in 117 accidents, 2012 there were 119 accidents and death tolls were 794, in 2013 there were few big air disasters. On April 11 A Ukrainian Military aircraft crashed killing 129 personnel on board. In February 16 Nepal Airlines Flight 183 a de Havilland Canada DHC-6 crashed near Pokhara, Nepal that killed 18 people. On March 08, Malaysia Airlines flight 370, a Boeing 777-200ER crashed in the ocean, On March 28, 2014 at 2105 a Lockheed C-130J-30 Hercules of Indian Air Force crashed near Karauli, India, killed 5 Indian Air Force crews. In the other corners of the world there were few small air crashes. Tanisha heard long before when her great grandfather (maternal) served in such aircraft in PAF, one was crashed over Karakoram Mountain where many airmen died. Nearby the highest war field i.e. a death valley where Pakistani and Indian soldiers very often fight and die.

It is Siachen Glacier which is about 18,875ft high above the sea level in the Eastern Karakoram Range in the Himalayan Mountains. There only air routes are useable. From 1947 to 2014 there were many military aircrafts crashes. Their death tolls will always remain unknown. There are also deaths of avalanches of soldiers of both the sides. On 7 April, 2012, an avalanche hit a Pakistani military camp situated at Giary Sector, where 129 Pakistani soldiers and 11 civilians were buried alive.

When grow up Tanisha will know about deadliest airliners disasters. Followings attracted public attention for their dramas of incidences, rescue activity and destruction. History will never forget Korean Airliners Flight 007 crash in 1983 near Moneron Island, Soviet Union that killed 269, American Airliners Flight 191 crash in 1979 near O’Hare Airport, Des Plaines, USA. It was a DC-10 aircraft. Its fatalities were 273 including 2 ground personnel, Iran Air Flight 655 in 1988 inpersian Gulf, its death were 290. United States military Helicopter USS Vincennes fired two missiles that both hit the Iranian Air Bus. For this United States has never formally apologised for that, Air Africa crash in 1996 in Kinshasa, Congo. About fatalities are two reports 225 or 348. This is by far the deadliest airplane accident for people on the ground, Saudi Flight 163 in 1980, in Riyadh Airport, after taking off it landed again to avoid causalities but as failed evacuate in due time all the 301 personnel on board died of smoke inhalation, Iran Ilyshin 11-76 a military aircraft crashed near Karman that killed 302 Iranian military personnel.

Suddenly Tanisha with Shaki came, urged for more. But these information they will understand when they will be matured but they realise clearly the deaths. In 1996 there was a collision in the air of Charkhi Dadri, India. Its fatalities were 349. In the month of November a Kazakhstan Airlines modified Military plane KZK 1907 collided with a Saudi Arabian Jet airliners. It happened due to lack of English Knowledge of the crews of Kazak’s plane. So, Saudi Boeing crashed and other one crash landed. In 1985 a Japan Airlines Flight 123 crashed at Ueno in Japan. It was a domestic flight. The plane was packed. It was the deadliest single aircraft crash what killed 520 people, however 4 were survived. In 1977 at Tenerife Airport, Canary Islands due to misunderstanding with ATC a KLM and a Pan Am flight collided at the airport. Deaths were 583. In 2001 near Yaizu , Japan there was a mid air incidence. It was between a Boeing 747 and DC- 10 who were flying at the same altitude. Boeing crews made a violent dive to save the accident otherwise that would be the deadliest airline accident. So,of 677 passengers and crews all survived with 99 injuries.

Nana Bhai said, normal accidents people take as usual incidents and consoles those to be act of God. But incidents like Pan Am Flight-103 that killed 290, and Air India Flight 182 that killed 329 were caused by bombs and the world trade centre disasters due to hijacking that killed 2753 will never be rubbed off from the memory of History till the dooms day. By this time what will be written in the History? Who will say it! The time to come will reply! Mahakal (future till the doomsday) may able to say. Tanisha wants no more accidents either that may be act of God or man creating disasters like bomb blasting or anything else. She along with her friend Shaki made strong invocation to their Lord Allah, O Khuda! Let there be no Air disaster and no death. They know kind and almighty Allah listens all the supplications on the Fri day. It is the holiest day for Muslims worldwide.

Nana Bhai is more practical. She thought about the deadliest air disasters.The deadliest DC-10 crash was Turkish Airlines Flight 981 in 1974 over Senlis, near Ermenoville, France which killed 346 onboard. Among other deadliest air disasters Air France Flight 447 crashed on June, 01, 2009 that went down the deep section of the Atlantic that killed 216 passengers and 12 crews when it was flying from Brazil to Paris. The wreckage and black box seem till date are under the water of the deep sea. Just two months after the 9/11 American Airlines Flight 587 on its way to Dominican Republic crashes at Queens, N.Y. killing 260 people on board. It crashed just after the take off. On October 31, 1999 Egypt Air Flight 990 flying from Los Angeles to Cairo crashed in the Atlantic Ocean that killed 217 onboard. On September 02, 1998 Swiss Flight 111 crashed in Atlantic, 111 died on board. There is no ocean where no aircraft is crashed. As a matter of fact, when an aircraft is in danger in the sky crews try to land in the sea if they find no suitable landing strip to land in the ground in the hope that there may be some survivors. Sometimes many survive. Others never come up from the seabed. Lists of air accidents are too long. It will take many pages to cover. Tanisha wants Nana should stop it now.

But Nana Bhai failed to say Tanisha the number of death children due to all crashes. At the same time Nana Bhai murmured,” Birth and death, the inseparable poles of all life on earth, should not be a secret to man.” He wanted to tell death is nothing but parting of souls from the body. Tanisa cannot guess about soul. Nana Bhai added most people have a feeling that we all have a soul of one form or another. Philosophers have speculated on this over the centuries. All the deaths are waiting for rebirth for next life to live in hell or heaven Nana Bhai added. Only children and martyrs will directly enter their heavens because they do not have any sin.

She thinks about the death children. But mother gave her happy news. All the children are sinless. Anybody where he or she takes birth is without any sin. If any child dies angels come and take that soul to heaven. Now Tanisha is worriless about the death children of air disasters. They will be sent to heavens certainly by our omnipotent and omniscient creator Allah. He has created everything in this great universe. Now Tanisha wants to tell her friends of Glylang Seri Education centre in Singapore specially Mathanda who and Tanisha were took to be the twin by others, not to be worry and convey her best wishes to her teachers. She also wants the relatives of all of the loss Malaysian airliners who are living around them in Singapore and anywhere in the earth to have patience as their death children will be happy in the next life. May all the death children be happy in the heavens! Let them be in the ‘Tuba, the valley of the children in Jannat where angels will play and laugh with them! Jannat is a splendid place to live in peace, where the dwellers will remain happy forever!

 

Animal Lover : A Poem by Dr.Syed Md. Zainul Abedin

Four cats took refuge in the shadow

Crows cawed from ground and trees

Heatwave hurts like poisonous arrow

Sun sucked water of rivers and seas

 

People are frightened of sunstroke

They avoid going out of their homes

World seems to be covered by smoke

All animals try to hide under domes

 

A strange thing happened suddenly

A youth came there from nowhere

He put some foods for the cat family

His eyes showed compassion and care

 

 

The cats started to eat the tasty food

They looked very pleased by the favor

The youth was very friendly and good

He was seen as a perfect cat lover

 

He waited until they finished eating

Some foods remained in the hamper

He looked at the crows in the meeting

He wished to show better temper

 

He made small balls with them

And threw them here and there

Crows enjoyed food gathering game

They were happy with their share

 

 

Cats and crows are friends of mankind

The youth displayed his gracious mind

150th harvest from world’s longest-running rice experiment(Taken from IRRI website for further dissemination)

(Taken from IRRI website for further dissemination.The link of the story is here: irri.org/news/media-releases/150th-harvest-from-worlds-longest-running-rice-experiment)

 

150th harvest from world’s longest-running rice experiment

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The International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) is marking the 150th harvest of its Long-Term Continuous Cropping Experiment (LTCCE), the world’s longest-running rice research project.

This living field laboratory offers humanity a firsthand glimpse into the wonders of how rice production can be sustained in a changing climate without adversely affecting the soil and the productivity of a rice ecosystem.

According to Dr. Roland Buresh and Mr. Teodoro Correa, Jr., who both manage the LTCCE, the production of rice has been sustained after 150 rice crops in 52 years. Soil organic matter, a measure of soil fertility, has not declined in the past 30 years. This has been achieved without the application of crop residues and organic fertilizer.

The soil has remained a healthy medium for microorganisms, which is unique to flooded soils, thus providing sufficient biological input of nitrogen from the atmosphere for rice plants to produce 2 to 3 tons per hectare per crop. The application of fertilizer at an optimal rate for high profit can produce more than double this rice yield.

The experiences of the LTCCE have shown that proper application of fertilizer, sufficient irrigation water, and the use of modern high-yielding rice varieties and good crop management practices are essential for sustainable rice production.

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Yields vary from year to year, largely because of climate, and are higher during years and seasons with abundant sunlight. Insect pests and diseases have not been a major factor affecting rice yields because varieties grown in the LTCCE are resistant. They are regularly replaced with new high-yielding ones that are pest- and disease-resistant.

“We were fortunate that the first scientists of IRRI had the foresight to envision intensive cultivation of rice and initiate the LTCCE in 1962 to test the feasibility and sustainability of intensive rice cultivation with up to three crops per year,” Dr. Buresh explained. “Society has and will continue to benefit from the findings of this experiment.”

“The implications of this is enormous, especially as intensive cropping becomes inevitable when more than half of the world’s population or over 3.5 billion people eat rice as their staple food,” he added.

“This living field laboratory will enable scientists to identify and solve potential constraints in intensive rice cultivation before they appear in farmers’ fields. It will continue in the future to provide insight for sustaining the productivity of rice in a changing climate.”

Humankid : A Poem by Dr.Syed Md. Zainul Abedin

A humankid was playing in a garden

Her partner was a wonderful peahen

They bounced and chased each other

They acted the role of a lovely mother

 

The humankid stumbled on a hidden stone

She screamed for pain in the pelvic bone

The peahen was frightened by the accident

She called hummingbird for her treatment

 

The hummingbird came with first aid box

She hummed mantra with cunning fox

They massaged humankid with great care

Peahen flapped her wings for fresh air

 

Hearing tumult peacock rushed with peachicks

He gave good advice and showed great tricks

Humankid felt a little comfort by their nursing

Doctor hummingbird then started to sing

 

The parents of humankid heard the song

They thought something might be wrong

They came with neighbors for her aid

Humankid assured there was no raid

 

All became happy and started to dance

Humankid felt sleepy and fell into trance