Navigation (Water /Marine )
Civil and Military
SYED M. SALEH UDDIN
(The writer was an Instructor of AEC where he used to teach Military Science related subjects(Map Reading, Astro-Navigation, Aircraft recognition etc ) & served in the Rampura Ekramunnesa Degree College, Rampura, Dhaka-1219 till 2012 and retired as an Assistant Professor.Later served in the CATECH, NIETand HICA as a CI and other capacities.)
(From navigationtalk.wordpress.com for further dissemination, assisted by Officer cadet Jayed)
NAVIGATION AND CIVIL AND MILITARY TRAINING
NAVIGATION AND CIVIL AND MILITARY MARINE/ NAVAL TRAINING
Syed Mohd. Saleh Uddin
Navigational History of Bengal with Short Global Context : Boat was the main conveyance of the water covered area from the time unknown to us. But experts assumed , first boat was made by digging out log .Then gradually it developed. In Bangladesh such boats (Dunga ) are still seen . Here it is dug out trunk of Fan- palm tree. Before 6000 years in the Assyrian waters there seen plying leather covered over wooden frame boats. Before 5500years in the Mediterranean sea such boats with single or more oars were used for fishing or trading purposes . Slaves were used in the multi-oars boats to row. Boats during Harappa civilization were also used . Panini informed (500 BC ) about sewn boats in India named ‘ Vantra `. Patonjoli (200 BC ) also informed about boat in India. In a wall engraving of a Pyramid and an ancient Egyptian flower vase (3500 BC) sailed boats was seen. In ancient Assyrian relief (800 BC) few ancient boats are seen. The boat of Noah ( peace be upon him) is known every where in the globe. In Azanta cave of India engraving of boats with three masts is seen. In that engraving landing of Bijoy Singha in a coast of Sri- Lanka is seen . Strabo ( 60 to 19 BC ) mentioned about Alexander’s Navy in India. He has written Alexander has collected wood for his Naval boats from country of Porus, Hydsuses and Aksenes hilly jungles (around 326BC ).Bengal (Present Bangladesh and West Bengal), Southern India , Thailand , Some African Countries , China , Sri-Lanka , Myanmar etc are riverine countries . So , till date boat is one of the requirements for those countries . Even in less watery area its importance can not be ignored .Eskimos of northern Canada still use Kayak to cross waters . It is constructed by tying few logs together (In short a kayak may be termed as an Eskimo canoe made of skins completely covering a wooden frame except for an opening for the paddler). In Africa such boats are called Canoe. In Bangladesh Vela is such boat but made from the banana plants o bamboos. These are used in the local marshy area during rainy season. It is made of tying few Banana trees or Bamboo together. Red Indians of Southern America use Balsas which is a type of boat made of reeds. From the long past they are using such boats. Still in the lake Titicaca it is seen which is a type of boat made by straws (reed). Later people made hide ( leather of beasts) made boat named Coracles . Such boats are still seen in Wales. About same type of boat named Catamaran is seen in Madras, India .Besides Chinese Sampan, boat of Italy Galleon, boat of Venice (Italy ) Gondola, boat of Spain Galley, boat of the Norse pirate Viking boat etc having their own special characteristic and still navigating in their own waters.
Like other watery area of the world, In Bengal many types of boats were built ages after the ages. In the Ramayana of Balmiki in various slokas (verses) there mentioned Hindus used to visit Zab Island, Sumatra Island and China by boat. In the Mahabharata in a sloka there mentioned the youngest brother of Pandabas Shahadev Conquered some Islands in the Hi-sea. Kalidasha in his “Raghu Bangsha’’ mentioned Bengal as ‘Nausadhano–datan’. In many writings of Pal and Sen regimes there mentioned words like ‘ Nau–bati, Nau–bitan , Nau– dantak ’ These are the proofs of boat navigation of that time. In ancient Bengali literature ‘Charja –Gitika’ there seen mentions of boat( 13,14 and 38 Charja).From various ancient sources (antics) it is known that even in the first century B.C. Norsingdi was a river port on the bank of Meghna. From the ancient capital of Samatot ‘Rohita Giri’(Moinamoti) traders used to come to Meghna via Gomati and Titas river.Then via old Brahmaputra of Bhairab they entered the Bateswar port (near Belabo, Norsingdi). From there via Arialkha traders reached Norsingdi Port. From there they advanced towards (down) Bakla, Chandra Dhiv, Samonder ports and (up) towards Pundra Nogor( Bogra), Bhardhan court and Chilmari ports via Karotoa river. It is also known near Parulia (a village six miles away from Norsingdi) there was a link canal between Shitalakha and Bharamaputra for easy boat navigation. From the books of Periplas and Ptolemy, it is known that Western traders had come to Ganges ports and Tamralipti with their boats even before the Christ.
Foreign traders used to reach Wari and Bateswar ports via Sandip, Moinamoti, Bhairab, etc ports. Near Wari and Bateswar Ports Bhramaputra, Kalagachia and Arialkha river met together which made the ports so famous. From a sculpture engraved (8th century AD) in the stone made wall of Boro-bodur temple one may have idea of boats of that time . In the eleventh century AD Vhoz-raj has written a book named ‘Zukti kalpa taro` in Sanskrit on boats. From this book a clear idea may be gained about the boat and navigation of that time. He has mention there river plying (samainyaa) and seagoing (bishes) boats of his time. River plying boats were Khudra, Moidhama, Vim, Chapal, Potola, Voia, Dirgha, Patraputa, Gorvara and Monthara.Among seagoing boats Dirghika , Taroni, Lola, Gotvora, Tori, Zangala, Plabini, Dharani, Begini of Dirgha group and Urdha, Anordha, Swarnamukhi, Gorvini and Manthara of Unnata group were famous .There were house like boats also.They were Sarba Mondira, Moidha Mondira, Agra Mondira etc. There were four masts, three masts, two masts (Scooner), one mast in those boats.
Ancient Indian boats were without keel and ribs. Later on these were introduced. India was famous for sewed sea-going boats till 1500AD.Such boats were named Madarota. These were also exported to Arabian countries. Oars, rudder, deck, sails, anchors were very essential requirements for such ships.
From Ibne Batutar Safarnama the navigational route of his time is known. He has visited this sub continent from 12 Sept 1333 to end of April 1347. From Maldives he traveled Sri- Lanka, Bengal (Chittagong , Sylhet, etc), Malabar, Ujjayan etc. area by boat . From Ain –E – Akbaree it is known during the entire Mogul Period Bengal was the main boat building area of India. During the regimes of Muslim Sultans and Moguls, traders from Arab and other places came to various ports of India by boat. Then came Portuguese, Dutch , French and British in India by sea route. In 1600 AD British started its trading mission in India by East India Company, In June 23,1757 Nawab Siraz- ud- Daula was defeated by Lord Clive who was helped by local betrayers. Gradually they captured all the India step by step by hook and crook. Then British had to establish powerful fleets of merchant Navy for trading purpose throughout her colonies including Bengal. She had also to maintain a powerful Navy to save guard her military and trading interest. Then there was a proverb that ‘Britannia rules the waves’.
Bengal including present Bangladesh was and still is a land of rivers. Its Canals, Haor, Baor, nala and other waterslike Nod, Nodi(Rivers), Coasts etc are full of small and big boats sailed and without sail. Among them Dunga (it is also known as Kunda which is a dug out log. Such boat is also seen in India. Myanmar even with the Indians of Brazilian jungles),Dinga, Kusha , Sampan, Taboree, Moir Ponkhi Nao, Goina ,Panshi, Fishing boats, Baicher Nao( Long racing boats ),Choi Nao (house boats) etc are widely in use. During flood even in the streets of Dhaka small boats seen carrying passengers. Through out the year from Dhaka Lunches and Steamers carry passengers and cargo to river ports along Buriganga, of Chandpur, greater Barishal, Khulna and other places. Due to Farakka dam constructed in India, northern rivers become UN-navigable in the dry season.
From the independence, Bangladesh Government has signed Merchant Ship communication treaty with many countries. Even on August 22, 2000 our Government has signed such treaty with Iran,( Bangladesh Betar News ). Now in every working day it is seen our national flag carriers and ships of other countries leaving Chittagong and Chalna/ Mongla ports with our exports and also anchoring in our ports with foreign imports. In the rainy season some ships take risk to enter riverine ports where river is very deep.(SMSU)
Modern Seagoing ships and various types of Navigation: From very old age Bengal was the main boat making area of this sub-continent. Today also there are many shipyards at the two banks of Buriganga in Dhaka, Narayan gonj, Chittagong, Chalna/Mongla and other places. Here many organizations build big and small lunches and types of boats. With the collaboration of other technologically advanced countries some dockyards build ships also. Recently in the Dockyard of River Engineering Battalion in Dhaka a LCT is built and in a Korean Dockyard a Frigate is built for Bangladesh Navy by Korean technology (Daily Janakantha on 26 August, 2000). The LCT has landing facility for a Helicopter.
Like other countries Bangladesh is also using most modern ships for its seagoing cargo fleet. These may be classified as 1) Dry Cargo ships( Timber carrier , Grain carrier, Refrigerator ship) 2) Ore carriers 3) Universal Bulk carriers 4) Oil trawlers 5) Polar ships (to operate in polar regions, when required may be chartered )
Besides there are few passenger ships, fueling trawlers, barges, fishing trawlers, various naval boats (tug, gun boat, patrol boat, missile boat, torpedo boat etc warships) for military use. However small or big may be sea going ships in their hull structures there will consist of 1) How 2)Forecastle 3) Bridge 4)Wheel house 5)Poop 6)Stern 7)Hullwork 8) Life rails 9) Side Plantering 10)Bottom 11) Cargo hatch 12)Side hatch coaming 13)End hatch coaming 14) Stem 15)Sternpost 16) Upper deck 17) Seams 18) Butt 19) Transverse bulkhead 20)Ordinary frame 21) Web frame 22) Deck beam 23) Floor 24) Side stringer25) carling
Crews of a ship must know navigational process, otherwise a ship will never reach its destination. It is well known that the process of directing the movement of a ship from one place to another is Navigation. It involves position , direction and distance.
Types of Sea Navigation
Coastal Deep-sea Navigation
Conventional Navigation Electronics Navigation
System( Homing, Piloting,
Dead reckoning, Astro (celestial)
Navigation, Inertial Navigation)
Navigation by Radar ie Hyperbolic Nav. Sys. Other electronics Landfall Navigation, (Gee, Decca, Dectra, Nav.System ie Radio
Coastal Navigation, Omega, Loran ie LoranA aided navigation, Consol,
Narrow water Nav. Loran B, Loran C, SS Radio beacons, Aero-
(Pilotage). Loran, Loran D etc. radio beacons, Coast
radio stations, Radio
station, Port radio
(Note: Among above electronics systems few developed in the last world wars. Some of them are not in use. Advance and newer systems are replacing older and slower one. Inertial Navigation (guidance)system still is very successful in long range sea/ air/ space maneuvers. Satellite / Global positioning system is new but very effective in all types of Navigation. Modern inertial guidance system also needs electronics devices. An inertial auto-navigator made possible the voyages of US submarine Nautilus under the polar ice cap whereas recent accident (12/8/2000) of Russian submarine Koraska
( Daily Ittefaq, 19/8/200) under the Arctic ice cap of Barrettes sea may certainly be for faulty navigation system. Its detection/ finding devices failed to detect the object with which it was collided and as a result the submarine exploded twice and it dropped down to the bottom of the sea. Its 118 crews died under water in the submarine. There are other records also of nuclear submarine disaster under water for such reason. American submarine USS Thresher destroyed with 129 mariners( 10/4/1963 )under 8530 feet of the sea, USS Scorpion destroyed with 99 mariners (21/5/1968) under 11811 feet of the sea, USSR K-8 destroyed with 52 mariners (12/4/1970) under 12334 feet of the sea, K-219 destroyed with 4 mariners (6/10/1986)under 16000 feet of the sea, K-278 destroyed with 42 mariners(7/4/1989) under 5528 feet of the sea. ) SMSU
Charts/ Maps and instruments for Modern Navigation:
To define Navigation it may be said , it is a science and technique to determine the position of a boat / ship / aircraft / space craft or any other vehicle in unfamiliar surrounding to plan its course and guide for the purpose of ensuring its safety and moving efficiently from one place to another position. For appropriate Navigation modern ships employ flowing charts/ maps and instruments shown in the table below :
Navigational charts / maps and instruments :
(Note : Sonar is abbreviation of sound Navigation and range and Loran is abbreviation of long range aid to Navigation . During last world war there were seventy Loran stations. River / coastal ships of Bangladesh use ‘Decca’ hyperbolic Navigation system. It is operated in channel number 025. In Bangladesh it has few stations as Mymensing(red), Dohajhari(green), Jessore (purple) etc.
Navigational charts / maps are the representation of a Navigable area( canal / river/ coast/gulf/ sea etc) in a Mathematical ratio on a piece of paper or over any other media.
Navigational charts used by Bangladeshi ships of any other countries must have every features like Gulf (G), Bay(B), Fjord (Fd), Lock / Lough / Lake(L), Lagoon (Lagn) , Creek (Cr) , Strait (Str), Sound(Sd) , Passage(Pass), Channel(Chan), Approches(Apprs), Entrance(Entce), River(R), Estuary(Esty), Mouth(Mth), Roads/ Roadstead (Rds), Anchorage(Anch), Harvour(Hr), Haven(Hn), Port(P), Island(I), Islet(It), Archipelago(Archo), Peninsula(Penla), Cape(C), Promontory (Promy), Head/ Headland (Hd), Point(Pt) , Mountain/ Mount (Mt), Peak (Pk),Volcano (Vol), Landing place(Lndg), Rock(Rk), Various types of lights (Place) for Navigation , Light house , Buoys and Beacons used for Navigation , Radio and Radar stations , Quality of River / Sea bottom , types of Tides and currents , sounding – depth contours , Various limits, Various dangers (wreck, coral-reef , foul, over fall, eddies , kelps , breakers etc), sinker , datum, kingpin, refindering pin, communication stations etc. must be shown properly as recognized symbols . Symbols and abbreviations used on navigational/ admiralty charts / maps should also be clear to mariners from the marginal notes. The riverine navigational routes of Bangladesh may also poses some of above features. As for example route from Dhaka to khulna is a longer one. In the way there are Kat patti, Chandpur, Barisal, Zhalokati, Kewkhali, Holarhat, Charkhali, Baro Machoa, Moral Gonj, Chalna and then Khulna etc big river ports. Steamer and big lunches ply in this route. Besides from Dhaka there are lunch link to Sri-nogor, Taltolla, Bandura, Dahoree, Char mohan, Utrail, Zajira, Echuli, Lakmi Kantopur, Neel-komol, C&B, Wapda, Nandir Bazar, Munshigonj, Khepu para, Swreshwar, Piaj-khali, Matlab, Goalando, Potuakhali, Damodda, Madaripur, Torki, Bhola, Lal-mohan, Borguna, Bagerhat etc river ports. Aricha, Nogorbari, Daulatdia and Voapur –Sirajgonj ferry ghats are still very busy. Ferry boats and lunches move from one ghat to another. There are other ferry ghats also. Rivers of those are very changeable. During rainy season banks break, chars rise or abolish. Thus practically topographical change in the ground. Artificial navigational aids may also be changed.Older one may be abandoned and some new one may be established. So lunches, ferries, Steamers plying in such routes must keep latest navigational charts with all natural and artificial objects around.
Instruments required for Navigation are shown in the above table. Components specially used for Nautical Astro Navigation are chronometer for time keeping, Compass for direction finding , Marine sextant to know altitudes of celestial bodies above visible horizon and angles between objects on board ship, Artificial horizon to measure the altitudes of celestial bodies when horizon is not visible, Radio sextant for the measurement of bodies by radio emissions , Dip-meter to measure the dip of the visible horizon at sea, Nautical Almanac to know the position of celestial bodies (Sun , Polaris , Southern Crux etc.).
Dead reckoning and other river / sea navigation methods are use for determination of position, parameters (direction of motion and distance travel), course (intended direction of travel), the direction steered (direction differs for anticipated offset due to wind or current course etc. ) ,actual track of sailing (direction made good), heading (the direction to which the ship is moving), Fix(position in a particular place),set of current ( position variation due to current ),drift ( distance between two positions divided by time by the last fix).All these are done by marine navigators. The determination of position is commonly done by plotting on appropriate chart / map / plotting sheet. It is done by Parallel rulers or by drafting machine. Its computing done by various computing devices/computers. Computerized Geographical reference system (GIS) made modern navigation easier. Its speed and distance is measured by various log ( Dutchman log, Chip log, Mechanical or Taffrail log, Pilometer log, Forbes log, Electromagnetic log) etc. Depth of the sea is measured by Fatho- meter (whatever navigation system a ship follows the depth of its fix must be clear to the navigator ).Still there may be ship disaster . So big powers maintaining salvage ships ( like Pamir and Titov of Russia) and deep sea divers who try to rescue assets and crews from ship wrecks. (SMSU)
Navigational Training in Bangladesh: To supply skill manpower in the merchant ships during Pakistan period a Marine Academy was established in Chittagong. Nautical and Engineering are two main courses here. After successful completion of training from here students get job in the Bangladesh Shipping corporation and also other foreign Shipping organization. This academy follows British standard curriculum for its students. This is a recognized branch of World Maritime University situated at Malmo in Sweden. It is also recognized by Marine department of Hong Kong. After completion of course a cadet of Nautical branch join in the ship as a Deck cadet. Then step by step one will
become Fourth officer, Third officer, Second officer and finally Master(Captain). An engineering cadet on completion of his course join a ship as Cadet engineer. Then step by step he becomes Fifth engineer, Fourth engineer, Third engineer, Second engineer and chief engineer .According to tradition of shipping nautical personnel become Captain of a ship but now a days in some countries engineering personnel also become captain.From 1962 to 1999 about 1833 cadets came out successfully and served in various capacities in Shipping companies worldwide. Many of them also became captain. During Pakistan Period there also established a Marine Fishery Academy in Chittagong. This academy also offer courses like the Marine Academy but suitable for fishing trawlers. After successful completion of training in this Academy students may get job in the deep sea- fishing trawlers. In Chittagong there is a Seamen training center also. From here trained technical personnel get jobs in various merchant / fishing ships. In Sonakanda ,Narayangonj there is a Deck workers training center of BIWTA. This organization offers various courses suitable for working in Lunch, Ferry, Steamer etc plying in the inland rivers and coastal areas. So most of the crews employed in the rocket steamers PS Mahmood, Lepcha, Ostrich, Turn, MV Madhumati and other vessels of BIWTA are trained from this training center.
To train officers and seamen of Bangladesh Navy it has own Naval Academy (BNA)and Seamen training center. There officers and seamen of various disciplines are given training. At present Bangladesh Navy is enrolling women officers also. Like other naval officers they are also getting hard initial training in the Bangladesh Military Academy (BMA) and professional training in the BNA and BUET/ BIT. River Engineering Battalion of the Bangladesh Army is also playing an important role of Military Navigation of the land. It is having patrol boats, LCTs and other crafts required for Military river engineering. Its officers are trained in the BMA and also for some disciplines in the BUET. Its technical personnel are trained in various training centers of Bangladesh Army. Coast guard of Bangladesh is the latest addition with the military navigation of the land. Its manpower is supplied from the Bangladesh Navy and hence its training facilities are same as the Bangladesh Navy but in due time their administration may be separated like Bangladesh rifles. Till date in the vulnerable riverine area Bangladesh rifles having patrol boats. It is having own training facilities for its technical personnel but its officers is posted from the Bangladesh Army.(SMSU)
Navigational law/ regulation: Navigation law/ regulation developed solely for the safety and convenience of shipping in all countries of the world. Navigation law regulates the actual navigation of ships. In England the first Navigation act was passed in 1381. Charles II established National register of ships in 1660. Till date through out the Globe this is a regular practice. By this nationality of a ship is known. Bangladeshi ship means the ship is registered in Bangladesh. Rules of navigational routes are also regulated by Navigation law. In Bengal (India) Calcutta Port Authority started giving license to all boats plying around the port by Port Act 1908 (XV of 1908).In Bangladesh boats plying in the Inland water should take license from Bangladesh Inland Water Transport Authority. All the crafts plying in its jurisdiction must follow navigational route laws. However this not properly followed in Bangladesh. So now and again there occurs fatal accident of water transport. As for example on July 27, 2000 two passenger lunches M.V. Minto and M..V. Shafi collided face to face which caused many casualities (Daily News Papers of July 28, 2000.). Bangladeshi crafts ply around Chittagong and Chalna/Mongla ports should take license from respective port authority. To obtain license passenger /cargo boats must be in good condition. Must have proper search light and specified number of life bouys.(SMSU)
Way to Military Navigation(Royal Indian Navy, Indian Navy, Pakistan Navy) of Bangladesh:During second world war some Indian naval crafts was in action in Burmese waters off the Arakan coast against the Japanese and had odd counters in the Persian Gulf on escort duty. During Second World War British raised the Indian Navy as an auxiliary force of the Royal Navy. Initially it had few small vessels, which were capable of patrolling Indian Coastal water. However, Royal Navy had a glorious past like British empire. This Navy protected the right of way of merchant shipping in the high seas and defended the colonial coastland. It also attended naval bases from hostile seaward invasion. At that time the famous slogan was “Britannia rules the waves.”
On partition of 1947 like Army and Airforce Royal Indian Navy (RIN) was also divided. Before that there was mutiny in Bombay and Karachi Naval establishments in February 1947. For that there was drastic cuts in RIN strength. Yet during sharing, India got 32 light vessels and Pakistan got 16. These were not bigger ships but they were meant to support large fighting ships in coastal waters. However, Indian share comprised four sloops, two frigates, one Corvette, 12 minesweepers, four trawlers, four motor launches & a survey ship. At that time Indian Navy had 1000 officers and about 10,000 other ranks personnel. Pakistan’s share of personnel was also less in proportion. In 1948 Indian Navy procured one LST and six LCTs.In the same year they purchased a light cruiser and three R class destroyers from Britain. They have collected two oilers with them..It purchased a fleet replenishment ship from Itali and borrowed three Hunt class ex-escort Destroyers from Britain. From 1955 by next six years they have collected two coastal minesweepers, five anti submarine frigates and three anti aircraft frigates along with other devices.
In 1955 and 1957 Indian Navy procured two Air-craft carriers.Gradually it obtained modern naval fighters, fighter-bombers, anti submarine aircraft like ten Sea- land amphibious craft (1953), Fairy fly craft (1955), Hindustan HT-2 and Vampire trainer (Jet) aircrafts. American-Sea Hawk Jet fighter-bombers, French Alize reconnaissance and anti-submarine turbo Propelled aircrafts, Coastal minesweepers, antisubmarine frigates, anti-aircraft frigates, destroyer, submarines, missile boats, patrol boats etc. In 1961 Indian Navy consisted 50 warships of all types. It had 1450 officers and 14,550 ratings. Its fleet was based on the west coast of Bombay and Cochin. By April 1962 it had all types of its facilities. But its ships were entirely of British origin. Only the fleet replenishment ship was built by other country. Its Savitry class seaward defense boats were built by Italian , Yugoslav and Dutch parts. They captured a Portuguese frigate in the Goa operation in 1961 was also the asset of Indian Navy.Few smaller boats built in Indian Dockyard were also commissioned with Indian Navy and hence before 1965 it was a powerful Naval force.
In 1965 war Pakistani Naval Power was much weaker than that of India. Pakistan did not have any aircraft carrier, submarines and other vassals were also less. The fact was at that time Pakistani naval capability was very limited which could guard the coastline of two wings of that country separated by about 3,000 miles of sea. Even riverine warfare facility in the eastern wing was also overlooked. Before 1965 war Pakistan had one second hand cruiser, five old destroyers, a fleet oiler obtained from Britain and an US gifted submarine named ‘Diablo’ which was re-named by Pakistani authority ‘Gazi’. The hostility started in 1965 from incursions in the Rann of Kutch on April 9, 1965 followed by Pakistani sponsored infiltration by Mujaheeds into Jammu and Kashmir in early August. On September 6 ,1965 India invaded West Pakistan. Soon Navies of both the countries engaged in war.A Pakistani flotilla advanced towards fishing port of Saurashtra coast Dwarka and attacked over abondoned World war II Radar station. Submarine Gazi was also around Bombay harbour.Some Indian anti submarine frigates chased Gazi back upto Karachi harbour .
After the 1965 war unto 1971 Indian Navy collected a fleet of new antisubmarine warships, few minesweepers and some Ossa Missile boats. A large number of Patrol boats were also collected from various sources. For maritime reconnaissance Indian Navy employed three Constellation aircrafts of Air India fitted with surveillence Radar and other detection equipments. Pakistan Navy employed Fokker friendship (F-27) of PIA for the same purpose. After the 1965 war Pakistan purchased three Daphne class sub-marine from France.After the 1971 war Pakistan tried to made up losses suffered in the war.In 1981 it had 17 major surface warships, nine submarines , some coastal patrol boats, mine sweepers, tanks and tugs. Later Pakistan purchased eight Midget submarines of the S X 404 class from Itali, two more Whitby class frigates, Shanhi II class 8 large patrol crafts.Recently also it included some more crafts etc.
As for example Pakistan recently has added a French built Agusta B-90 class submarine in her Navy and two other submarines of same class will be built in a dock yard situated at karachi port by the technical assistance of French (Ref: The Daily Ittefaq, Sept. 10, 1999) to be commissioned in Pakistan Navy. Such submarines can carry various types of missiles. Few French built Petrol aircrafts are also Commissioned in the Pakistan Navy. One of the such aircraft (Brighway Atlantic aircraft) was shot down by Indian Mig-21 on 10/8/99 while it was patrolling over the border area with sixteen officers and crews. It may be the follow up action of last Kargil war (commenced in 1999).(SMSU)
Military Navigation of 1971 and emergence of Independent Bangladesh Navy: In 1971 when India took decision to help liberate Bangladesh, Indian Naval Military Planners wanted to blockade Khulna-Chalna and Chittagong ports. So the job was assigned to aircraft carrier Vikrant based task force. It consisted the destroyer Rajput, two frigates Brahmahputra and Beas, two anti submarine patrol boats and two to three LSTs. In November 1971 the fleet was waiting in its base in the Andamans . At that time in this wing Pakistani naval strength consisted only 24 boats for riverine warfare under Admiral Sharif. In March 1971 here Pakistan Navy had one destroyer, the fleet oiler and four patrol crafts. During dire need it was under repair in a naval dock- yard of Karachi. However PN activated some gunboats for riverine war here. But drain of Bengali officers and seamen( about 38 percent of total PN strength were Bengali ) frustrated Pakistani authority and hence here there were less of skill manpower.
Pakistan Navy assigned submarine Gazi to trap Vikrant in Visakhapatnam waters. So, on November 14, 1971 it left Karachi for the Bay of Bengal. It reached the assigned area on 24 November .On the night of 3 December it was destroyed under water by an explosion for an unknown reason. So, Vikrant reached its assigned area in the Bay of Bengal safely. On the morning of 4 December its aircrafts raided Cox’s Bazar’s airfield and harbour facilities. In the afternoon of the same day Patenga airfield and chittagong harbour were attacked and damaged. Thus blockade of Chittagong and Khulna ports was completed. Indian fleet captured two 8,000tons Pakistani merchant ships ( Anwar Baksh and Baqir ), two tugs, six other Pakistani crafts trying to flee under false colors and names. They also seized eight Pakistani ships which was chartered from other countries. At about same time IAF was raiding riverine gunboats and destroyed them. Among four seagoing patrol boats one is sunk by Indian fighter, one ran away to neutral waters near Burma and other two were captured by Indian Navy in the harbour during surrender .In the Western Wing Pakistan lost one destroyer and one minesweeper, three gunboats by naval action and submarine Gazi for an accident. Indian loss was one shore based Alize aircraft of the fleet air arm and a frigate Khukri with 18 officers and 176 crews including its Commanding officer Capt. Mulla who decided to go down with his frigate instead of being rescued according to the highest tradition of Military navigation ( Navy ) at war. Before it was sank (9/12/71) he was on the bridge and supervising rescue activities. On December 10, 1971 President Nixon took decision to send a naval task force to Bay of Bengal from Indo-China (from the Seventh fleet). It consisted aircraft carrier Enterprise (with Phantoms and Nuclear warheads ),amphibious attack-ship Tripoli (commando carrier) with required mariners, a guided missile frigate, some destroyers and dock landing supply ship. Due to Indian quick action its intention to help Pakistan was not possible .The war was over.
Bengali mariners has established Bangladesh Navy. It establishment day was 10th December, 1971. Because on that day their Naval ship Padma and Palash were destroyed and sunk by Indian air attack (by mistake, still specialists having mixed re-action about this mysterious attack). (ˆmq` Av‡bvqvi †nv‡mb, gyw³ hy‡Ïi BwZnvm PP©v – ZË¡ I c×wZ , Abycg cÖKvkbx XvKv, 2000).
To establish Bangladesh Navy, in the month of September 1971 from port commissioner of calcutta Bangladesh Government collected two ships. They were re-named M.V. Palash and M.V. Padma. In each ship two 40mm guns were installed to make those war worthy. Initially 45 defected seamen from Pakistan Navy operated them. By November 1971 about 860 Naval Commandos were trained. Day by day Bangladesh Navy is getting newer Warships and other devices from various countries. It is the demand of the day that it should be more powerful with latest naval war equipments that will be capable enough to safeguard its sea area from foreign invasion. Coast Guard of Bangladesh will have also to be equipped with latest equipments and skill manpower to safeguard national properties from local and international ( Thai, Burmese of Myanmar etc.) smugglers & pirates. Seamen of both the organizations must also be trained to help natural calamity affected persons of coastal area and isolated islands of Bangladesh and of neighboring countries .They must also have to work with marines of other countries for the same purpose. In the past also US Navy and Navies of other countries came to help our cyclone affected people of coastal areas and isolated islands.(SMSU)
1.AvmMi kwdKzj , BwZnvm K_v Kq (M‡elbv gjK MÖš’) , Îqx cÖKvkbx , XvKv 1986|
2.Avjx bvwmi †gvnv¤§` (Abyw`Z ), Be‡b eZzZvi mdibvgv , evsjv GKv†Wgx , XvKv 1968|
3.gwjK †`eeªZ , †bŠKv ( M‡elbv Kg©),‡`k, KwjKvZv , 6,Ryb1992|
4.Burger W, M.Sc (Wales), Radar observer’s handbook for Merchant Navy Officers,
Brown son & Ferguson, Ltd., Nautical Publishers, Glasgow, 1978.
5.O’ Neil B.G. Commander, Dover Strait Pilot, The Hydrographer of the Navy,
6.Singh Sukhwant Major General, India’s Wars Since Independence, Defence of the Western Border (vol. two ), Vikas Publishing House Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi, 1981.
7.Various Encyclopaedias, other publications, manuscript ( of contributor about Navigation), News papers etc.