Category Archives: 2013 Monsoon Floods in Nepal and India: What happened and what could have been done?(ICIMOD Article)

Agricultural Programmes of Television and Radio of Bangladesh : Syeda Tasnim Jannat

The electronic media of Bangladesh play vital role in disseminating and popularizing agricultural technologies.Among the electronic media television and radio contribute immensely for enhancing the spread of agricultural technologies.The regular extension service run by public agencies and non government organizations is strengthened by the contributions of electronic media.

You can have an idea from the following information that both  public and private electronic media are contributing for disseminating agricultural technologies.Since the economy of Bangladesh is chiefly  based on agriculture all electronic media should engage more time and resources on this sector.However,the electronic media who have come forward in popularizing agricultural technologies,practices and business must be congratulated for understanding the reality.

Agricultural Programmes of Television and Radio of Bangladesh

 

Media Programme (with brief description) Frequency
Bangladesh Television(BTV)Public terrestrial TV Channel 1.Mati o Manush(Soil and Man),a popular programme showing agricultural technologies and disseminating relevant information.2.Banglar Krishi(Agriculture of Bengal),regular daily technology disseminating programme3.Krishi Songbad(Agriculture News),agricultural news Telecast on five days a week at 0700 P.M. on Monday,Tuesday and Wednesday and at 0610 A.M. on Thursday and Friday.The programme is retelecast on the following days at 0810 A.M.2.Telecast everyday at 0725 A.M.3.Telecast regularly with news
Channel IPrivate TV Channel 1.Hridoye Mati o Manush(Soil and Man in the Heart)2.Hridoye Mati o Manusher Dak(Call of Soil and Man in the Heart)3.Krishi Songbad(Agriculture News) 1.Telecast on Saturday at 0935 P.M. and retelecast on Sunday at 1130 A.M.2.Telecast on 0305 P.M.3.Telecast regularly with all news
Bangla VisionPrivate TV Channel 1.Shaymol Bangla(Green Bangla) 1.Telecast on Thursday at 0550 P.M.Retelecast on Thurday at 0330 A.M.,Friday at 0830 A.M. and on Wednesday at 0930 A.M.
Boishakhi TelevisionPrivate TV Channel Krishi o Jibon(Agriculture and Life) Telecast on Sunday at 0620 A.M. and retelecast on Monday at 0230 A.M.
GTVPrivate TV Channel Shobuj Bangla(Green Bangla) Telecast on Friday at 0630 A.M.and retelecast on Friday at 0945 A.M.,Saturday at 1130 A.M. and Monday at 0530 P.M.
Bangladesh Betar,Dhaka(Radio Bangladesh,Dhaka) 1.Desh Amar Mati Amar(My Country My Soil),National programme2.Krishi Shomachar(Agricultural Affairs),National programme3.Shonali Foshol(Golden Crop),Regional Programme4.Shobuj Prantor(Green Field),National programme5.Shoshho Shaymol(Green Crop),National programme

6.Amar Desh(My Country),

National programme

1.Broadcast daily at 0705-0730 P.M.2.Broadcast daily at 0625-0630 A.M.3.Broadcast daily at 0605-0635P.M.4.Broadcast on Fridays at 0550-0600 P.M.5.Broadcast on the 3rd Thursdays at 0830-0900 P.M.6.Broadcast daily at 0435-0435 P.M.
Bangladesh Betar,Chittagong 1.Krishi Shomachar (Agricultural Affairs),Regional programme2.Krishi Khamar ( AgriculturalFarm),Regional programme 1.Broadcast daily at 0625-0630 A.M. in Summer and at 0655-0700 A.M.in Winter2.Broadcast daily at 0610-0650 P.M.
Bangladesh Betar,Khulna 1.Krishi Shomachar (Agricultural Affairs),Regional programme2.Chashabad(Cultivation),Regional programme 1.Broadcast daily at 0625-0630 A.M. in Summer and at 0655-0700 A.M.in Winter2.Broadcast daily at 0610-0650 P.M.
Bangladesh Betar,Rangpur 1.Krishi Shomachar (Agricultural Affairs),Regional programme2.Khet Khamare(In Field and Farm),Regional programme 1.Broadcast daily at 0625-0630 A.M. in Summer and at 0655-0700 A.M.in Winter2.Broadcast daily at 0605-0635 P.M.
Bangladesh Betar,Rajshahi 1.Khet Khamar Shomachar ( Affairs of Field and Farm),Regional programme2.Shobuj Bangla(Green Bangla),Regional programme 1.Broadcast daily at 0625-0630 A.M. in Summer and at 0655-0700 A.M.in Winter2.Broadcast daily at 0605-0645P.M.
Bangladesh Betar,Sylhet 1.Ajker Chashabad(Today’s Cultivation),Regional programme2.Shaymol Sylhet(Green Sylhet),Regional programme 1.Broadcast daily at 0625-0630 A.M. in Summer and at 0655-0700 A.M.in Winter2.Broadcast daily at 0605-0645P.M. except Friday
Bangladesh Betar,Rangamati Khamarbari (Farmhouse),Regional programme Broadcast daily at 0320-0330 P.M.
Bangladesh Betar,Bandarban Krishikotha(Agriculture Talk),Regional programme Broadcast on Sunday,Monday,Tuesday and Wednesday at 0405-0425 P.M.
Bangladesh Betar,Barisal Krishikotha(Agriculture Talk),Regional programme Broadcast on Saturday,Monday,Tuesday,Thursday and Friday at 0315-0335 P.M.
Bangladesh Betar,Cox’s Bazar Shonali Prantor(Golden Field),Regional programme Broadcast on Friday,Saturday,Sunday and Tuesday at 0305-0330 P.M.
Bangladesh Betar,Thakurgaon Kishan Mati Desh(Farmer Soil Country),Regional programme Broadcast on Friday,Saturday,Monday and Wednesday at 0605-0630 P.M.
Bangladesh Betar,Comilla Shujola Shufola (Well-watered Well-produced )Regional programme Broadcast on Sunday,Tuesday,and Thursday at 0520-0530 P.M.
Agricultural Radios

Various programmes ,

Regional programme

Broadcast daily from morning till night

Boishakhi TelevisionPrivate TV Channel          Shofolotar Shat Rong(Seven Colors of Success)                                                                                                                                                Broadcast on Saturday at 0300 P.M.

2013 Monsoon Floods in Nepal and India: What happened and what could have been done?(ICIMOD Article)

2013 Monsoon Floods in Nepal and India: What happened and what could have been done?

24 Jun 2013

While the world is waking up to the news of the horrific scale of the recent flood disaster in the Mahakali basin of Nepal and Uttarakhand in India, several questions are being asked: what kind of climatic events led to this disaster? Could anything have been done to reduce the loss of life and property? What can we learn from this disaster for the future? In this brief note, we address some of these burning questions.

Mahakali flood disaster

The Mahakali river is a transboundary river between Nepal and India with a catchment area of 14,871 km2. It flows for about 223 km in Nepal and around 323.5 km in India to its confluence with the Karnali River in India. The recent rainfall events in the western and far western regions of Nepal and India affected 20 districts in Nepal and several districts in the Indian states of Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh. The floods and landslides that ensued have left hundreds of people dead or missing and destroyed property worth millions of dollars. While this is not the first event of this kind (see annexes), it is certainly the most severe in the last 50 years and it happened at the beginning of the monsoon when no one was expecting.

Figure 1. Flood and landslide affected districts in Nepal

Intense rainfall events

The monsoon rains usually hit Central Nepal around 15 June and Far Western Nepal around 20 June. This year, the monsoon quickly engulfed the region (http://www.imd.gov.in/; Figure 2). The real-time monitoring station in Nepal reported 80.4 mm of rain on 16 June and 221.8 mm on 17 June at Dipayal, which adjoins the Mahakali flood disaster area (http://dhm.gov.np/; Figure 3 and Figure 4). Surrounding areas such as Dadeldhura, Dhangadi, and Birendranagar in the Far Western Development Region of Nepal recorded more than 150 mm of rainfall in 24 hours on 17 June 2013. Continuous rain in the upper catchments caused the water level in the Seti river east of the Mahakali to rise from 6.94 m to 11.56 m and 5.53 m to 12.81 m in the Karnali at Chisapani on 17 June, as measured by Department of Hydrology and Meteorology, Nepal’s real time network. Unfortunately, there are no real time stations installed by the Department on the Mahakali river. One to three day weather forecasts provided by United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) also indicated heavy rainfall on 17 and 18 June on the border of Nepal and India (Figure 5). Cumulative 3 day TRMM rainfall estimates from 16 June to 18 June show heavy rainfall in the flood affected regions of Nepal and India (Figure 6). The discharge in the Mahakali river rose from 139,000 cubic feet per second to 440,716 cubic feet per second on 17 June – well in excess of the flow of 398,000 cubic feet seconds recorded in the 2012 monsoon (http://www.kantipuronline.com/2013/06/18/top-story/massive-floods-in-mahakali-river-6-killed-update/373456/).

Figure 2. Advance of southwest monsoon, 2013

Figure 3. Hourly rainfall at Dipayal on 17 June (Department of Hydrology and Meteorology, 2013)

Figure 4. Daily rainfall summary on the Seti at Dipayal, June 2013 (Department of Hydrology and Meteorology, 2013)

Figure 5. Satellite image of 24-hour precipitation in mm (US NOAA)

Figure 6. Cumulative 3 day TRMM satellite rainfall estimate

Impact

While we do not know the full extent of the devastation in Nepal and India, reports are trickling in. In Darchula, in the Far Western Development Region, the flood swept away 77 buildings and displaced 2,500 people (http://www.nepalnews.com/archive/2013/jun/jun18/news12.php). Six were killed in Achham and Baitadi districts and eight are missing in Dhungaad. A reported 150 families have been rendered homeless in Dodhara and Chadani and around 30 families have been affected in Kuda. Four houses in Salyan have been damaged due to a landslide. In Kalikot district, 4 people are dead and 11 missing and 27 families have been displaced. Flood in the Karnali river has affected many villages in the southeast region of Kailali, inundating large areas in Tikapur Municipality and the VDCs of Lalbojhi, Bhajani, Thapapur and Khailad. In Bardiya the floods have intensely affected the Rajapur Tappu region where 2,000 houses were inundated by the Karnali river. Approximately 600 families are still at great risk in Khairichandanpur (http://www.ekantipur.com/2013/06/19/headlines/Monsoon-fury-claims-at-least-20-many-missing/373488/).
Upstream from India-Nepal Bridge in Darchula, Nepal

Before                                                    During Flood

A school downstream from India-Nepal Bridge, Darchula, India

Before                                                    During Flood

Downstream from India-Nepal Bridge, Darchula, India

Before                                                    During Flood

The effects were even more devastating in Uttarakhand in India. The flood
occurred in the peak tourist and pilgrimage season, increasing the number of causalities, missing, and affected. The monsoon arrived 15 days early in Uttarakhand with continuous rainfall between Friday 14 June and Monday 17 June 2013. This resulted in increased water level and flow in the two main rivers, the Alakananda and Bhagirathi. Cloudbursts and landslides at various locations added to the devastation and impact on the lives of the people. Up to 17 June, the rainfall ranged from 50 mm up to 500 mm. Over 60 hours of continuous rain disrupted normal life. According to the Uttarakhand State government’s disaster mitigation and management centre, causalities could run into the thousands with about 90 dharamshalas (rest houses for pilgrims) swept away in the floods. Five districts in the state have been affected, more than 550 people have died, thousands are still missing, and over 50,000 are stranded.

What we have learnt from this series of events?

Two main lessons can be drawn from the Mahakali and Uttarakhand flood disasters: The severity of the disaster could have been mitigated with a better end-to-end information system and proper infrastructure planning would have reduced the damage.
Accordingly, we need to:
  • Put in place institutional mechanisms that that can use technological advances in forecasting:
Although some warnings were disseminated by the India Meteorological Organization about the possibility of high to intense rainfall, this information was not transmitted to the
people at risk. There is a need to strengthen disaster management and preparedness mechanisms, which requires awareness and sensitization at various levels to ensure that early warning information is conveyed to end users well in advance. Advances in technology have made it possible to provide three to four hours warning of such events – which is enough to save lives. We need to develop the institutional mechanisms to fully use such technological advances.
  • Set up more hydrometeorological stations on transboundary rivers:
There is no river-level hydrological monitoring station on the Mahakali river for flood forecasting and early warning. It is recommended that a river monitoring station for early warning be set up jointly by Nepal and India to provide people with some lead-time and improve flood forecasting and management in the basin.
  • Carefully plan infrastructure in the mountains:
The Hindu newspaper put it succinctly when it said that damage could have been contained through proper policies, especially regarding infrastructure development. The development of infrastructure in mountain areas, whether roads or buildings, is challenging. Many mountain roads are contributing a huge sediment load to our rivers and inviting landslides. Many of the settlements are located along flood plains and have developed over the years, encroaching the river banks and increasing the vulnerability to floods. These settlements include residential homes, offices, resorts and restaurants to name a few. There has been limited or no efforts to move these settlements to higher grounds. In the recent floods, large stretches of road and settlements were washed away stranding thousands of people and raising questions about their design, construction, and monitoring. Infrastructure development in the mountains has to be undertaken with caution and proper planning, and must apply different standards to that in the plains.
  • There is also a need to investigate whether or not there have been significant land use changes in the basin resulting in increased runoff.

ICIMOD’s role in Disaster Risk Reduction

As a regional knowledge and learning centre serving the eight countries of the Hindu Kush Himalayas – Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal, and Pakistan – ICIMOD is uniquely placed to address issues of a transboundary nature. ICIMOD is focused on improving our understanding of the complex hydrological processes of the Hindu Kush Himalayan region and promoting data and information sharing. It seeks to facilitate cooperation on policies, the timely sharing of information, and the proper management of the water resources.
ICIMOD is working for an economically and environmentally sound mountain ecosystem to improve the living standards of mountain people and sustain vital ecosystem services – now and for the future. ICIMOD has chosen to focus on hazards and disasters related to adverse weather and climate conditions, such as high intensity rainfall, glacial lake outburst floods, regional floods, and flash floods. In order to address the risks facing mountain communities and better understand the nature of hazards that might lead to disasters, ICIMOD has outlined a series of activities to be undertaken as part of ‘Disaster risk reduction and community resilience’ including the:
  • assessment of vulnerability of communities and building their resilience to multi-hazards;
  • assessment of the impact of climate change on ecosystems, natural hazards, and human health;
  • delivery of training in disaster risk reduction; and
  • provision of a platform for sharing knowledge and experiences within disaster risk reduction.
ICIMOD, in partnership with the World Meteorological Organization and partner countries from Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India, Nepal, and Pakistan, is working to establish a regional flood information system. Twenty-four hydrometeorological stations have been installed to share real time data to strengthen flood forecasting in four countries. In Nepal, nine hydrometeorological stations have been installed in the Koshi basin and eight in the Kailash Sacred Landscape.
ICIMOD aims to assist mountain people in implementing improved disaster risk reduction at national and regional levels addressing upstream-downstream linkages for saving lives and livelihoods. This is achieved through the implementation of transboundary programmes in partnership with regional partner institutions, exploring the application of satellite-based technologies for disaster risk reduction, supporting networking, facilitating the exchange of experience, and serving as a regional knowledge hub, among other things. Institutional strengthening and capacity building of our partner institutions is also being undertaken to contribute to effective disaster risk reduction.

Annex 1. Recent floods in Nepal with disaster details

Region

Year

Disaster

Mahakali June 2013 Final report still to be prepared
Dang June 2012 145 families were displaced and 2,200 household were affected by flash floods
Batadi, Achham, Kalikot, Jajrkot, Rukum, Rolpa, Kaski, Tanahu, Makwanpur, Gorkha, Nuwakot, Sindhuli, Sarlahi, Solukhumbu June 2011 14 districts affected by floods and landslide; 25 deaths; 2 missing; 4 injured; 515 houses destroyed
Dailekh, Jajarkot, Rukum, Palpa, Rupandehi, Parbat, Dhading, Sindhuli, Solukhumbu, August 2011 9 districts affected; 65 deaths; 35 missing; 24 injured; 110 houses destroyed
Kanchanpur September 2010 60 houses damaged on the Mahakali river
Dadeldhura, Bajura, Achham, Rukum, Kaski, Illam June–August 2010 6 districts affected; 98 deaths; 8 missing; 29 injured; 2,835 houses destroyed; 39,000 people affected

Annex 2. Recent floods in India with disaster details

Region

Year

Disaster

Uttarakhand, Shimla,

Himachal Pradesh

June 2013 Final report still to be prepared
Guwahati,

Brahmaputra river overflow

July 2012 80 deaths from flood; 16 buried in landslide; 11 missing
Assam July 2012 95 deaths; 12 missing
Uttarkashi district,

Ganga flood

August 2012 34 deaths; 80 houses damaged
Uttar Pradesh, Bihar September 2011 30 deaths; 10 missing in Brahmani river