Tag Archives: diarrhoeal diseases

icddr,b contributes to largest global study on diarrhoeal diseases in developing countries

28 May 2013 – icddr,b has contributed to a new international study that provides the clearest picture yet of the impact and most common causes of diarrhoeal diseases, which kill 800,000 children annually. The Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) is the largest study ever conducted on diarrhoeal diseases in developing countries, enrolling more than 20,000 children from seven sites across Asia and Africa. The findings of the study were recently published in The Lancet and provide guidelines on prevention, treatment and research on childhood diarrhoeal diseases.

The GEMS study in Bangladesh was conducted in Mirzapur, a sub-district just north of Dhaka, by icddr,b’s Centre for Nutrition & Food Security.  “Better information is critical to changing the way we fight diarrhoeal diseases,” said Dr. A.S.G. Faruque, Principal Investigator at the Bangladesh trial site. “GEMS shows us clearly how we can target our approach and where we need to invest our resources to make a difference.”

Funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, GEMS was a case control study conducted at seven diverse, high-burden sites in Asia and Africa: the Gambia, Kenya, Mali, Mozambique, Bangladesh, India and Pakistan. The study enrolled 22,569 children under five years of age –  a sample size that is large enough to provide comprehensive data on the causes, incidence and impact of the range of diarrhoeal diseases affecting children around the world. GEMS established a network of well-equipped laboratories in the study countries that can be used to accelerate future research on diarrhoea and other child health priorities.

Rotavirus:  a leading cause of infant diarrhoeal diseases

Coordinated by the University of Maryland School of Medicine’s Center for Vaccine Development, GEMS confirmed rotavirus – for which a vaccine already exists – as the leading cause of diarrhoeal diseases among infants and identified other top causes for which additional research is urgently needed. GEMS found that approximately one in five children under the age of two suffer from MSD each year, which increased children’s risk of death by eight-and-a-half times and lead to stunted growth over a two-month follow-up period.

Shigella, a type of bacteria, caused the largest number of infections in toddlers and older children. Unlike at sites in Africa, Aeromonas – another type of bacteria – was the third leading cause of MSD, confirming its regional importance as a pathogen. Linear growth delays were significant among children in all age groups in the two months following their MSD episode, and a single episode of MSD increased children’s risk of death more than twelvefold over the same period.

Despite many causes, GEMS found that targeting just four pathogens could prevent the majority of MSD cases.  Expanding access to vaccines for rotavirus could save hundreds of thousands of lives. Likewise, GEMS data suggests that accelerating research on vaccines, diagnostics and treatments for the three other leading pathogens – Shigella, Cryptosporidium and ST-ETEC (a type of E. coli) – could have a similar impact.

“The GEMS findings help set priorities for investments that could greatly reduce the burden of childhood diarrhoeal diseases,” said Dr. Thomas Brewer, deputy director of the Enteric & Diarrheal Diseases team at the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

Longer-term monitoring and expansion of interventions can save lives

The GEMS findings also suggest that longer-term monitoring and care of children with diarrhoeal diseases could reduce mortality and developmental delays. Children with MSD grew significantly less in height in the two months following the diarrhoeal episode when compared with control children without diarrhoea, and were eight-and-a-half times more likely to die over the course of the two-month follow-up period. Notably, 61 percent of deaths occurred more than a week after the initial diarrhoeal episode, with 56 percent of deaths happening after families had returned home from a healthcare facility.

Expanding access to existing interventions that protect against or treat all diarrhoeal diseases –  including oral rehydration solutions, zinc supplements and clean water and sanitation- can save lives and improve the health of children immediately.

The GEMS findings add to the scientific evidence cited in the first-ever Integrated Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of Pneumonia and Diarrhea (GAPPD) recently announced by the World Health Organization and UNICEF. The GAPPD strategy calls for effectively controlling pneumonia and diarrhoea, which together are the two leading causes of death among young children globally.

For more details please contact Senior Manager Communications Nasmeen Ahmed

 

(The article has been published for further dissemination of ICDDR,B achievements taken from the link: http://www.icddrb.org/media-centre/news/4125-icddrb-contributes-to-largest-global-study-on-diarrhoeal-diseases-in-developing-countries of the website of this international organization located in Bangladesh)

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International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh(ICDDR,B):Symbol of Hope – By Dr. Syed Zainul Abedin

It was not very long ago when thousands of peoples would die of cholera and other diarrhoeal diseases helplessly without proper treatment.The scenario changed dramatically when International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B) was established in Dhaka.The research, motivation and dissemination activities of this international health research organization has now become the Symbol of Hope for the peoples of the whole world who are vulnerable to diarrhoeal diseases.
This international health research institution is located at Mahakhali area of Dhaka. The centre provides treatment to thousands of patients around the year.The centre organizes special camps for intervention when outbreaks of diarrhoeal diseases take place. The patients and their well wishers have great trust upon the quality of service of this organization.
In collaboration with academic and research institutions throughout the world, ICDDR,B conducts research, training and extension activities, as well as programme-based activities, to develop and share knowledge for global lifesaving solutions.
ICDDR,B has a mix of national and international staff, including public health scientists, laboratory scientists, clinicians, nutritionists, epidemiologists, demographers, social and behavioural scientists, IT professionals, and experts in emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, and vaccine sciences. The Centre has a cross-cultural environment. This Centre provides ideal working condition for genders where women feel secure .
Since 1978, the Centre has shared its knowledge with the world, training more than 27,000 health professionals from over 78 countries. Courses provide practical training in topics such as hospital management of diarrhoeal diseases, epidemiology, biostatistics, family planning, demographic surveillance and child survival strategies. At present three training programmes are being organized regularly by this centre.The programmes are:
1.Introductory Course on Epidemiology and Biostatistics;
2.Introductory Course on Qualitative Research Methodology;and
3.Biosafety and Biosecurity Training Programme

ICDDR,B regulary organizes an annual event called Annual Scientific Conference (ASCON) each year.The 13th ASCON was held during 14-17 March 2011 at the Pan Pacific Sonargaon Hotel,Dhaka with the theme “Science to Accelerate Universal Health Coverage”.Over the course of three days, the conference provided an opportunity for the 800 scientists, health professionals, programme managers, community organisers and policy-makers who have registered to meet and discuss this important issue. To share their countries’ experiences with universal health coverage, speakers have come from countries as far as South Africa, South America, Europe, as well as South and South East Asia.You
may learn about this important event from the following link:http://www.icddrb.org/media-centre/news/2232-icddrbs-13th-annual-scientific-conference-ascon-xiii-starts-in-full-swing
ICDDR,B’s activities are supported by about 55 donor countries and organizations, including the Government of Bangladesh, UN specialized agencies, foundations, universities, research institutes and private sector organizations and companies that share the Centre’s concern for the health problems of developing countries and value its proven experience in helping solve those problems. The Centre is governed by a distinguished multinational Board of Trustees comprising 17 members from around the globe.
The simple and cheap treatment procedures developed by ICDDR,B has been considered as a blessing for the poor peoples of the developing countries where diarrhoeal diseases pose great threats.The services of ICDDRB has become a Symbol of Hope for the poor peoples of the world.
There are numerous activities undertaken by ICDDR,B.You can learn some of them from this video:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B5OLddc9zjs

Update on ICDDR’B Training Programme on 16 May 2012

http://www.icddrb.org/train-with-us/current-courses/event/461-introductory-course-on-epidemiology-and-biostatistics

Introductory Course on Epidemiology and Biostatistics

Hosted by: ICDDR,B

Date: 24 Jun 12 to 19 Jul 12

Location: Seminar Room-1, Sasakawa International Training Centre, icddr,b, Dhaka, Bangladesh

Introduction
The scientific arena today is largely evidence based and relies heavily on numbers or quantities. An inquisitive mind always needs skills to organise quantitative measurements in meaningful ways and place those against the context for better understanding. Connecting and weighing the understanding through a recognized paradigm consequently lead to generation of new knowledge or strengthening the already known ones with evidences. The course on epidemiology and biostatistics aims at equipping a new researcher with the basic skill of dealing with the quantitative measurements that would lead to those evidences.

http://www.icddrb.org/images/siteimagery/TrainWithUs/Courses/training-1.jpg

Course Description
The main objective of the course is to provide participants with an understanding of basic concepts of epidemiology and skills in quantitative techniques to plan design and undertake basic epidemiological studies on specific health problems. It is also expected that after completion of the course participants would understand scientific articles better.

In addition to theoretical, case studies and practical exercises, the participants are given hands on training on the use of PC to transform data into information through basic analysis using software such as Epi info and SPSS. The participants are also required to develop and present research proposals in groups.

Course content

Epidemiology

Concepts in epidemiology
Basic tools of measurements in epidemiology
Overview of epidemiological study designs
Literature search including demonstration and referencing using EndNote
Cross sectional study design
Case-control study design
Prospective study design
Estimation of risk and 95% confidence intervals
Clinical trial design
Outbreak investigation
Screening and evaluation of diagnostic test
Standardization for rates
Bias in epidemiological studies
Questionnaire development and data collection
Concept of causality
Protocol development
Ethical issues in research
Critical review and scientific writing

Biostatistics

Concept, scope and uses of statistics
Measures of central tendency and dispersion
Normal probability curve: concept, properties and use
Sampling, sampling distribution, sampling error, standard error and confidence interval
Test of hypothesis: t-test and z-test
Chi-square test of independence
Correlation and regression
ANOVA and logistic regression
Non parametric tests
Sample size calculation
Use of P.C.: Epi-Info 3.5 and SPSS (Basics)

Duration
Four weeks. Sessions are normally conducted from 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. on all week days (Sunday through Thursday). But at times it may continue beyond this. A substantial amount of reading and preparatory work will be necessary during evenings and on week-ends.

Faculty members
The course is largely taught by the faculty from ICDDR, B.

Teaching methods
The course includes lectures, discussions, case studies, exercises and computer sessions. In addition, participants develop and present research proposals as a group exercise. There will be a test before and after the course, intended primarily as a tool for participants to assess their own progress.

Training materials
Comprehensive hand-outs are given to the participants as well as a CD that contains Epi-Info 3.5.

Target group
Medical graduates or Master’s in biological/health sciences or social sciences are eligible for the course. No previous formal training in epidemiology or statistics is required.

Number of participants
It is intended to accept a maximum of 18 participants.

Course fee
The course fee for the locals is Tk. 10000 (Taka Ten Thousand) for the individual and Tk.15000 (Taka Fifteen Thousand) for the institutional Participants and for international participants the course fee will be US $ 500 to cover the cost of training materials, faculty time, morning and afternoon tea/coffee, and certificate of participation. However, travel costs, medical insurance, other meals and accommodation are not included in the course fee. The course fee is payable on notification of acceptance preferably by wire transfer or bank draft in favour of icddr,b (bank details will be provided with acceptance letter). Admission will be confirmed only when the fee is received.

Selection of participants
In general, participants will be selected based on their pre-requisite qualifications and first come first serve basis, however, institutional and female participant will get preference. Only selected participants will be notified by email or over telephone.

How to apply
Please fill in the downloadable application form and send it to Dr. Md. Manirul Islam at [email protected] on or before the day 3 weeks prior to the course starts. Applications should accompany a CV and employed persons should apply through their employer.

Further Information
Please contact:
Technical Training Unit
Phone: +880-2-8860523-32
Email:[email protected]

Downloads

Bio-data sheet of 50th.doc